Badshah Khan

Badshah Khan, also written Bacha Khan, full name Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890-1988) was a Muslim follower of Gandhi and a major contributor to the freedom struggle of the 1930s.  He was from the Pakhtun (Pashtun, Pakhtoon) area of what was then the North West Frontier Province of India.  This devout Muslim raised a nonviolent “army” of 80,000 violence-wearied Pashtuns — the same people who wore down the Russian invasion of Afghanistan and from whom the Taliban are recruited today. Revered as a spiritual leader of his people, this nonviolent giant proved that, as Gandhi said, the bravest people make the best nonviolent fighters, and that nonviolence is effective against ruthless opposition, and is fully compatible with the ideals of Islam.


Eknath Easwaran, Nonviolent Soldier of Islam

Gandhi, Rajmohan, Nonviolent Badshah of the Pakhtuns

Mukulika Banerjee (2000) The Pathan Unarmed Opposition & Memory in the North West Frontier (School of American Research Press)

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1969) My life and struggle Autobiography of Badshah Khan (as narrated to K B Narang) Translated by Helen Bouman Hind Pocket Books New Delhi)

Note: the Wikipedia article on Badshah Khan is very useful.